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Code Mnemonic Description
FF /6 PUSH r/m16 Push r/m16
FF /6 PUSH r/m32 Push r/m32
50 + rw PUSH r16 Push r16
50 + rd PUSH r32 Push r32
6A PUSH imm8 Push imm8
68 PUSH imm16 Push imm16
68 PUSH imm32 Push imm32
0E PUSH CS Push CS
16 PUSH SS Push SS
1E PUSH DS Push DS
06 PUSH ES Push ES
0F A0 PUSH FS Push FS
0F A8 PUSH GS Push GS

Description
Decrements the stack pointer and then stores the source operand on the top of the stack. The address-size attribute of the stack segment determines the stack pointer size (16 bits or 32 bits), and the operand-size attribute of the current code segment determines the amount the stack pointer is decremented (2 bytes or 4 bytes). For example, if these address- and operand-size attributes are 32, the 32-bit ESP register (stack pointer) is decremented by 4 and, if they are 16, the 16-bit SP register is decremented by 2.(The B flag in the stack segment's segment descriptor determines the stack's address-size attribute, and the D flag in the current code segment's segment descriptor, along with prefixes, determines the operand-size attribute and also the address-size attribute of the source operand.) Pushing a 16-bit operand when the stack address-size attribute is 32 can result in a misaligned the stack pointer (that is, the stack pointer is not aligned on a doubleword boundary).

The PUSH ESP instruction pushes the value of the ESP register as it existed before the instruction was executed. Thus, if a PUSH instruction uses a memory operand in which the ESP register is used as a base register for computing the operand address, the effective address of the operand is computed before the ESP register is decremented.

In the real-address mode, if the ESP or SP register is 1 when the PUSH instruction is executed, the processor shuts down due to a lack of stack space. No exception is generated to indicate this condition.
Operands Bytes Clocks
reg 1 1 UV
mem 2 + d(0 - 2) 2 2 NP
seg 1 1 NP
imm 1 + i(1, 2) 1 1 NP
FS/GS 2 1 NP

Flags
ID unaffected DF unaffected
VIP unaffected IF unaffected
VIF unaffected TF unaffected
AC unaffected SF unaffected
VM unaffected ZF unaffected
RF unaffected AF unaffected
NT unaffected PF unaffected
IOPL unaffected CF unaffected
OF unaffected